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ASTM A36

ASTM A36 PDF Free Download

ASTM A36

Definition

This specification covers carbon steel shape plates, and bars of structural quality for use in riveted, bolted, or welded construction of bridges and buildings, and for general structural purposes.

A36 is low carbon steel. Low carbon steel is classified as having less than 0.3% carbon by weight. This allows A36 steel to be easily machined, welded, and formed, making it extremely useful as a general-purpose steel.

How A36 is Made?

The manufacturing method of A36 is similar to most carbon steel.

First, the iron ore and coal are mixed in the furnace. The impurities are removed, and alloying elements are added to the molten steel.

Once it reaches the chemical composition of A36 steel, it will solidify into a rectangular ingot. A36 steel is usually hot rolled. This means that when the ingot is at a high temperature, rollers are used to shape it to its final size.

Equivalent

American Standard A36, the tensile strength is 58~80 Ksi (about 400~550MPa), and the yield strength is 36 Ksi (about 250MPa).

European standard S275, the tensile strength is 430~580 MPa, and the yield strength is >=275MPa.

Chinese standard Q235, the tensile strength is 370~500 MPa, and the yield strength is 235MPa.

Japanese standard SS400, the tensile strength is 400~510 MPa, and the yield strength is 245Mpa.

Specification

A36 Mechanical Property

A36 Mechanical Property
ASTM A36 Hot Rolled Steel Plate
Mechanical PropertiesMetricImperial
Tensile Strength, Ultimate400 - 550 MPa58000 - 79800 psi
Tensile Strength, Yield250 MPa36300 psi
Elongation at Break (in 200 mm)0.20.2
Elongation at Break (in 50 mm)0.230.23
Modulus of Elasticity200 GPa29000 ksi
Bulk Modulus (typical for steel)140 GPa20300 ksi
Poissons Ratio0.260.26
Shear Modulus79.3 GPa11500 ksi

A36 Chemical Composition

A36 Chemical Requirements
Thickness, inchesUp to 3/4"Over 3/4" to 1-1/2"Over 1-1/2" to 4"Over 4"
Carbon, max %0.260.270.280.29
Manganese, %0.60 - 0.900.60 - 0.900.60 - 0.90
Phosphorous, max %0.040.040.040.04
Sulfur, max %0.050.050.050.05
Silicon, max %0.40.40.40.4
Copper, min % when copper is specified0.20.20.20.2

A36 Appurtenant Materials

A36 Appurtenant Materials
MaterialASTM Designation
BoltsA307 Grade A
High Strength BoltsA325
NutsA563
ForgingsA668 Class D
Anchor BoltsF1554 Grade 36

Applications

ASTM A36 Carbon Structural Steel Plate Application fields
machinery partsframesfixturesbearing platestanksbinsbearing platesforgings
base platesgearscamssprocketsjigsringstemplatesfixtures
ASTM A36 Steel Plate Fabrication Options
cold bendingmild hot formingpunchingmachiningweldingcold bendingmild hot formingpunching

Due to the relatively good strength, the formability of A36 steel, and the fact that it can be easily welded, it is commonly used as structural steel. It can be found in buildings, bridges, and other large-scale structures.

It is used in bolted, riveted, or welded construction of bridges, buildings, and oil rigs.

It is used in forming tanks, bins, bearing plates, fixtures, rings, templates, jigs, sprockets, cams, gears, base plates, forgings, ornamental works, stakes, brackets, automotive and agricultural equipment, frames, machinery parts.

Heat Treatment

A36 steel can be hardened using a variety of heat treatment processes including:

  • Normalizing, which takes place in the range 899 °C to 954 °C
  • Carburising, which takes place in the range 899 °C to 927 °C
  • Hardening, which takes place in the range 788 °C to 816 °C
  • Stress-relieving, which takes place in the range 677 °C to 927 °C

Related articles

ASTM A924

EN 10327

ASTM A792

ASTM A755

Q235 Steel

Conclusion

ASTM A36 is a structural quality mild carbon steel. Its strength, formability, and excellent welding properties make it suitable for a large variety of applications, including welding, fabricating, and bending.

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